Water Forward Osmosis?

Forward Osmosis: What it is and how its used

Forward osmosis is a process using a special water-permeable membrane, which separates water from substances or contaminates contained within it. It works using osmotic pressure, which is created by placing solutions of two different concentrations side by side. The first of these is termed the draw solution, which tends to pull in the feed solution due to its higher concentration. The membrane rests in the middle, and as the feed solution flows through it, it strains the unwanted particulates out of the water. These contaminates or undesirable substances are classified as solutes, because they are dissolved in the water itself.

What is the difference between forward osmosis, and the more well-known process of reverse osmosis? In reverse osmosis, rather than relying upon solutions of different concentrations to drive the cycle, it is powered from an outside force instead. This is necessary, because reverse osmosis forces the higher concentration solution to flow back into the less concentrated one – against the osmotic gradient.

Forward osmosis is far simpler, typically being a one step process, relying upon the solutes alone to carry out the job. These solutes trade places as the filtration occurs, which can produce drinkable water in many cases. Take water from a stream, lake or river with harmful contaminates contained within it as an example. Benign solutes will be in the draw solution, which are safe to ingest. These will take the place of the unwanted particles in the river water, making it potable and safe to drink.

The ease of the mechanism has made forward osmosis a popular choice for portable water filtration, as only gentle stirring or suction is needed. Products intended for backpackers are especially numerous, and these use solutes such as fructose or glucose which can be readily ingested. Thus, the pathogens in the outdoor water sources the hikers select, will be replaced with beneficial sugars instead. Often, a water bottle with a special straw is the form that is offered, as the suction speeds the forward osmosis process. Other units rely upon osmotic pressure alone, though these take a bit longer to perform the operation.

Another product which uses forward osmosis as its base, are special hydration bags for survival situations. These are issued to combat forces in desert regions, as they allow them to filter their own urine and create drinkable water. Even seawater could be successfully filtered using this approach in theory, and it has gained some interest for use in life boat emergency kits.

However, when it comes to desalination, a second step is usually added for better results. Most often, forward osmosis is allowed to take place with the seawater, and then the resulting solution is subjected to a secondary filtration method. There are many options available today, such as using another specialized membrane or heat to finish the job.

What are the benefits of this approach? Much of the salt is removed by the forward osmosis, allowing the equipment used in the rest of the process to run far smoother overall. Salt water has a reputation for causing mechanical issues, and desalination plants using reverse osmosis as their first step often run into problems.

The only downside to forward osmosis is that the draw solutes end up in the filtered water, and a second step is necessary to remove them. However, this isn’t required when solutes which are safe to ingest are used. As amply demonstrated by the above discussion, this is a small limitation, as forward osmosis has many practical applications due to its simplicity. It has several advantages over reverse osmosis too, making it an excellent choice for removing harmful contaminants in a variety of different situations.

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Carbon Block for use in Drinking Water Filtration

Carbon Block for use in Drinking Water Filtration

Carbon Blocks – One of the Earth’s Oldest Filtration Systems

Carbon is an age-old natural water filter, dating back to Ancient Egyptian times. Today, it is often used in household filtration systems (usually as some attachment to the kitchen tap) or as a pre-treatment for reverse osmosis filtration systems. Carbon Blocks are often used in city water treatment facilities.

Naturally, a porous material, carbon, basically absorbs contaminants. Some carbon block filters can filter out organic contaminants as small as 1.5 microns, while some carbon blocks struggle to trap anything smaller than 20 microns. It can effectively filter out organic contaminants and chlorine but not necessarily dangerous bacteria and viruses. Not all carbon blocks are the same.

Carbon is the 4th most comon element in the universe. 

Organic Taste removal Carbon Blocks

Carbon Block Filtering Capabilities

Although they use the same basic principle, the carbon block filtration system is usually an over-achiever compared to the activated granular carbon filtration system. The reason for this is that carbon blocks usually have a greater surface area, thereby increasing the rate of adsorption. The flow rate is another critical factor in effective water filtration systems: the longer the water takes to pass through the filter, the longer it has to absorb more contaminants, and the cleaner the water. Contact time is essential!

That is, forcing water at high pressure through activated carbon will significantly reduce the effectiveness of the absorption qualities of the carbon.

Activated carbon block, basically removes most of the bad tastes out of water.

Carbon block filters are often used in point-of-use household systems.  Depending on the water quality in the area, carbon block filters are relatively effective at providing safe drinking water[in the home.  As technology improves, the filtration systems are becoming more sophisticated and reliable.  Many carbon block filters are now part of a three-stage system to protect against bacteria, viruses, and contaminants.  Carbon block filters by itself effectively remove minerals but not dangerous bacteria and viruses bacteria from the water.  Using Carbon blocks has a limited effect on the safety of drinking original water quality as it will likely contain bacteria or viruses still.

Did you know nearly 20% of your body mass is Carbon!

Carbon Blocks donot remove important minerals in water

Health-providing trace minerals like dissolved calcium and magnesium do not bond to carbon, allowing the minerals to pass through, thereby retaining the water’s health quality and good taste.

Removal of Heavy Metals from water

Heavy metals like lead do not bond to the carbon. The heavy metals being larger in size are strained out by the pore size of the block — basically like trying to fit a basketball down a hole designed for a ping pong ball!!

Carbon block filtration systems are relatively economical and ecological. There is no need for electricity as the block uses the natural water pressure to filter, though it takes significant time to pass through. Carbon is relatively cheap, so it isn’t the most expensive filtration technology available. Most carbon block filtration systems require replacement every 5,000 gallons of water, taking water from roughly 4 to 10 cents per gallon. The most expensive part is getting in a professional plumber to install and/or replace the system at home.

There are some commercially available jugs that use carbon blocks to filter organic material from water and improve the taste. It does not provide you instant drinking water as it takes many minutes or hours in some cases to go through the compact carbon blocks.

Essentially, carbon block filtration is a useful option for household use but isn’t failsafe and doesn’t provide you with portable water purification.

Carbon Blocks are not useful in non household situations

Carbon block filters are not appropriate for hiking, camping, or traveling for water filtration systems that you can take with you. Opt for a water filter bottle like the Sure Aqua Survival Bottle that uses nano-filtration technology to remove 99.9999% of bacteria. Check out the rest of the SureAqua range to find the right water filtration system to suit your needs.

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Nano – Membrane Technology in Portable Water Filters

Nano – Membrane Technology in Portable Water Filters

Nano – Membrane Technology in Portable Water Filters Can Save You

The cutting edge technology of nano-membrane filtration is now available in personal portable water filtration.

The adaptation of nano-membrane filtration has been one, that until recent times, has had somewhat limited results within the realm of portable water filtration. The area that has challenged researchers to date, is adapting the ultra filtration level required into an effective size exclusion barrier.

How can we help to provide safe drinking water from tap?

Nano Technology

The development of the SureAqua products has addressed this.

The quality of the membrane is paramount, with the intricate construction of the SureAqua products the key to the efficacy of the Sure Aqua Survival Jerrycan, SureAqua Survival Straw and the SureAqua Survival Bottle, filtering to 0.01 microns and the resulting outcome; the removal of;

  • Water borne bacteria to 99.9999%
  • Water borne viruses to 99.99%.

The ultra-filtration level required to act as an effective size exclusion barrier, to remove both water borne bacteria and water borne viruses is that of 0.01 microns., while removing bacteria only, is achieved by a filtration level of 0.1 microns. This is due to the very size of the bacteria and viruses, the very microbiology that might be present in may water supplies. Water supplies, yes, of third world countries, also in that of developed nations. Microbiology will also commonly contaminate water following disaster situations, situations that do not discriminate.

In delivering the level of filtration of the SureAqua products, along with the supporting independent laboratory results, world standards and accreditation met, these products will not only give you the assurance of safe drinking water, they can and will save lives.

Lets try to reduce the pollution into our environment.

SureAqua delivers nano-membrane technology in the form of portable water filtration.

The cutting edge technology of nano-membrane filtration is now available in personal portable water filtration at an affordable price.

The adaptation of nano-membrane filtration has been one, that until recent times, has had somewhat limited results within the realm of portable water filtration. The area that has challenged researchers to date, is adapting the ultra filtration level required into an effective size exclusion barrier.

Nano Filtration

The development of the products has addressed this.

The quality of the membrane is paramount, with the intricate construction of the SureAqua products the key to the efficacy of the SureAqua Survival Straw and the SureAqua Survival Bottle Sure Aqua Survival Jerrycan, filtering to 0.01 microns and the resulting outcome; the removal of;

  • Water borne bacteria to 99.9999%
  • Water borne viruses to 99.99%

The ultra-filtration level required to act as an effective size exclusion barrier, to remove both water borne bacteria and water borne viruses is that of 0.01 microns., while removing bacteria only, is achieved by a filtration level of 0.1 microns. This is due to the very size of the bacteria and viruses, the very microbiology that might be present in may water supplies.

Water supplies, yes, of third world countries, also in that of developed nations. Microbiology will also commonly contaminate water following disaster situations, situations that do not discriminate.

Two other key objectives for SureAqua were, first objective to make the product affordable. They have exceeded their expectation. At less than 0.4 cents/gallon. The second objective is to have a long shelf life without detoriation. The unit can be stored for many years as there is no chemicals or ionisation

In delivering the level of filtration of the Sure Aqua products, along with the supporting independent laboratory results, world standards and accreditation met, these products will not only give you the assurance of safe drinking water, they can and will save lives.

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Portable Water Filters on the move

Portable Water Filters on the move

Traveling lightly? Check out which SureAqua portable water filter is right for

Water is essential for survival but too heavy to carry much of. If heading away from a place with access to safe drinking water, travel lightly, and make sure you have a portable water filter with you.

Obviously, you cannot change the mass of water. One liter of water will always weigh 1kg. Neither can you carry all the water you need if you plan to head away for more than five days. To have safe, portable water, you’ll need a good method of water purification and a container to carry small amounts of water in.

How can we help to provide safe drinking water from tap?

what water product to choose while traveling

The safest, most efficient portable water filter is probably the SureAqua Survival Bottle. The SureAqua Survival Bottle is the perfect portable water filter because it solves the purification process and the storage problem in one. You can fill it up whenever near water. The filtration occurs while you drink, so you can access safe water whenever you need it.

As a 1L sized bottle, it’s perfect for when you’re on the go. The bottle itself is made from thick plastic, so it won’t break if it gets knocked around a bit. There are also no batteries or power required so that you can travel lightly, and there’s no need to fuss about forgetting any bits or having it break down.

The SureAquaBottle also offers peace of mind, promising to remove 99.9999% of bacteria, including Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The bottle removes parasites, cysts, oocysts, and spores, and makes sure the water is clear and tastes clean.

The SureAquaBottle is also a cheap method of making portable water. One filter can purify up to 1000 liters of water, costing 1000th of the price of bottled water.

Lets try to reduce the pollution into our environment.

If you’re really short on space and need to travel lightly, the SureAquaStraw is another great portable water filter. Although the SureAquaStraw can’t store water, it’s a good option if you’re likely to have access to water for the majority of your journey. The Survival Straw is slightly cheaper than the bottle and significantly cheaper than bottled water. It also offers completely pure, safe water with a portable water filter you can store in your pocket.

Alternatively, the Sure Aqua could be the best option if you like the idea of storing everything together and having a highly portable water filter system. The SureAqua Pak is a great way to travel lightly and neatly. It has an inbuilt filtration device and bladder for storing water. Simply use the SureAquaStraw attached to the backpack to filter the water inside.

Not heading too far from the car? The SureAqua Survival Jerry Can is perfect if you want to a portable water filter that can store large volumes and don’t need to carry it too far. Like all SureAqua technology, the Jerrycan filters out 99.9999% of bacteria and 99.99% or viruses. The difference is, the jerry can filter up to 40, 000 liters of water and can be used for all your trips for up to 10 years. The SureAqua Survival Jerry Can is made of a hard polypropylene casing with a fiber filter membrane built inside. To filter the water inside, simply sip from the mouthpiece attached to the Survival  Jerry can.

When you want to travel lightly, a portable water filter is essential. Thankfully, SureAqua has got you covered with a range of portable water filter products so you can choose the one that’s right for you.

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Activated Granular Carbon

Activated Granular Carbon

Activated Granular Carbon: An Ancient Filtration System

Activated granular carbon is more than just a filtration system: it’s an ancient tradition. Activated carbon was used as far back as 1500BC when Egyptian doctors used it for medical purposes. Later, in World War One, the Allies used activated granular carbon in gas masks. Today, however, activated granular carbon is mostly used for water filtration systems.

How can we help to provide safe drinking water from tap?

ancient water filtering system
Activated granular carbon filters are made from natural materials, usually consisting of coal and charcoal. Essentially, carbon is an extremely powerful absorbent, and a basic filter for large sized contaminents. Due to its porous properties, activated granular carbon is one of the most effective methods of removing organic materials. Activated carbon has limited filtering capability allowing some bateria and virus to pass through crushed activated carbon. Heavy metals, nitrates, and iron have different properties.

Activated carbon removes water bourne contaminants for two fundamental water cleansing processes. It enables as a catalyst as well as an absorption. The absorption uses the positively chared ion in the activated carbon t attract the negative ions of the organic contaminants. This is why there is a limited lifespan of activated carbon and become ineffective after a reasonable short period of time. The catalytic reduction aspect of the process reacts to naturally occurring chloramines, chlorine and other residual disinfectants

Activated granular carbon filtration systems work in two ways: adsorption and catalytic reduction. The absorption process is simple. Organic compounds are absorbed into the carbon filter, purifying the water. The higher the level of carbon, the better the filtration system works, and the fewer microns of water will slip through. Activated granular carbon can filter to as many as 20 microns or as few as 0.5 microns, so the effectiveness is dependent on the particular filtration system.

Lets try to reduce the pollution into our environment.

Any residual pollutants that aren’t removed by adsorption may be removed by catalytic reduction. The catalytic reduction can reduce or even remove residual disinfectants like chlorine. In simple terms, a chemical reaction occurs whereby electrons are transferred from the activated granular carbon surface to the residual disinfectant. In other words, the negatively-charged contaminant ions are attracted to the positively-charged activated carbon.

Just do you want to know how good it is as a filtration system? Fair enough. Activated granular carbon can reduce bad tastes and smells, and does improve the quality of the water. While it’s great for some things, but isn’t reliable as a primary home filtration system or travel water system.

Often, activated granular carbon is used as a pre-treatment before reverse osmosis filtration, effectively removing organic products, giardia, and cryptosporidium. Reverse osmosis involves pushing water under high pressure through a membrane to trap all the contaminants. Although it does effectively remove contaminants from the water, it does it almost too well, removing everything and often affecting the taste.
Although both activated granular carbon and reverse osmosis will provide access to clean drinking water, neither are perfect.

It is more reliable to go for a microfiltration system, like Sure Aqua. Unlike reverse osmosis, microfiltration is completely sustainable: no water is wasted, no electricity is expended and no chemicals are used.

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Camping Water  How to get it Right

Camping Water How to get it Right

Camping Water: How to get it Right

At best, camping can be idyllic: you get in touch with nature, spend time with loved ones and explore new places. At worst, it can be a nightmare, a disappointing holiday spent cold, sick, covered in bites and squabbling with all your equally miserable companions. So when you go camping, it’s important to get it right.

First, decide what kind of camper you are. If you like your creature comforts, you’re best off finding somewhere you can park the car. This way, you can bring all the camping equipment you like and you don’t have to carry it all.

Hiking provides a feeling and sense of connection with nature.

Camping Water

If you’re feeling adventurous, try hiking to your campsite, you’ll need to select your camping equipment very carefully. When you’re carrying everything with you, every gram makes a difference. Become a minimalist, only take the least as possible, and make sure your camping equipment is as light as possible.

Natural sources like lakes and waterholes are almost never safe sources for camping water. However, trying to carry all your camping water is effective and extremely hard work, so you’ll need some method of water purification.

There are several ways to ensure safe camping water.

Hiking has the highest participation growth rate for any outdoor activity.

The traditional method is to boil all your camping water in a billy on a fire or an electric stove. This is relatively safe, but it can be unreliable. Boiling restricts you to small amounts, is quite slow and often leaves you having to drink hot water on a hot day. You also need to consider how necessary it is to carry extra camping equipment to use an electric stove or a billy and what will happen if you can’t make a fire.

Another popular method for camping water is to take water purification tablets with you. Water purification tablets use chemicals like iodine to kill bacteria .

On the good side, the tablets are cheap and quicker than boiling your camping water.  However, many fail to kill off harmful protozoa like giardia and cryptosporidium, and they often make the water taste terrible and may not kill hard shell cycsts. 

 

The best option really is to invest in a water purification bottle or straw.

They’re inexpensive, convenient and offer peace of mind. You don’t have to carry more camping water than you need and you can be certain you aren’t going to compromise your health and end up having a nightmarish camping experience.

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